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The Pomeranian is a breed of dog in the spitz family, named for the Pomerania region of Poland and eastern Germany, and classed as a toy dog breed because of its small size.
Pomeranian Dog Origin
The Pomeranian originated from the sled dogs of Iceland and Lapland, which were eventually brought into Europe in Pomerania.
Pomeranian Dog History
Breeders in Pomerania improved the coat and bred the Pomeranian dogs down for city living, but they were still 20 pounds or more when they reached England.
English breeders, through trial and error and Mendelian theories, are credited for reducing the Pomeranian dog's size and developing the many colors. The Pomeranian of today is small due to selective breeding, but the breed still retains the hardy disposition and thick coat typical of Pomeranian dogs in cold climates.
Orange Sable Pomeranian's faceQueen Charlotte first introduced the Pomeranian to English nobility, however; the Pomeranian gained international popularity when her granddaughter Victoria returned from vacation in Florence, Italy with a Pomeranian named Marco.
(It should be noted that the Pomeranian as a modern breed did not exist until the 19th century, The Pomeranian dogs owned by Queen Charlotte & Queen Victoria were much larger and were European Spitz. Probably a German Spitz and a Volpino Italiano. The same is true of any other historical pom owners from before the 19th century)
The closest relatives of the Pomeranian are the Norwegian Elkhound, the Samoyed, the Schipperke, and the whole Spitz group.
Pomeranian Dog Appearance
At an average of 3 to 7 lb (1.4 to 3.2 kg) according to AKC standards, the Pomeranian (Pom) is the most diminutive of the northern breeds.
The head of the Pomeranian is wedge-shaped, making it somewhat foxy in appearance. The ears are small and set high. The Pomeranian tail is characteristic of the breed and should be turned over the back and carried flat, set high.
A "parti-color" PomeranianThe Pom's coat is its glory, two coats, an undercoat and a top coat; the first is soft, thick, and fluffy; the latter is long, straight and coarse. The undercoat is shed once a year by males, by intact females when they are in season, after delivering a litter, and during times of stress.
The AKC recognizes thirteen colors or color combinations: black, black & tan, blue, blue & tan, chocolate, chocolate & tan, cream, cream sable, orange, orange sable, red, red sable, and sable. The dogs that have 2 or more colors (usually mostly white, with others), are called "Parti-Color". The AKC also recognizes five "alternative" colors: Beaver, brindle, chocolate sable, white, and wolf sable.
One breed standard calls for a cobby, balanced dog. A cobby dog is as long or shorter than he is tall; try to picture him as a circle in a square. A balanced Pomeranian fits together logically and in proportion. For instance, a small, delicately boned Pom with a large head looks unbalanced because his head type doesn't match his body type. A balanced Pom displays legs in proportion to his body: neither so short as to make him appear dumpy nor so long as to make him look like he is walking on stilts.
This standard also calls for an expression that imparts great intelligence, showing that the Pom has an alert character and that he behaves accordingly. The pom's alertness makes him a superb watchdog.